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The divine child : a novel of prenatal rebellion by Pascal Bruckner Book 23 editions published between and in 3 languages and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide After being force-fed with taped data to make him a genius, a child refuses to leave his mother's womb. He has decided life is not worth living. When the mother tries starving him out, he responds by attacking her internal organs. By the author of Evil Angels. Evil angels : a novel by Pascal Bruckner Book 67 editions published between and in 13 languages and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide.

The wisdom of money by Pascal Bruckner Book 18 editions published between and in 3 languages and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Money is an evil that does good, and a good that does evil. It inspires hymns to the prosperity it enables, manifestos about the poor it leaves behind, and diatribes for its corrosion of morality. In The Wisdom of Money, one of the world's great essayists guides us through the rich commentary that money has generated since ancient times--both the passions and the resentments--as he builds an unfashionable defense of the worldly wisdom of the bourgeoisie.

Bruckner begins with the worshippers and the despisers. Sometimes they are the same people--priests, for example, who venerate the poor from within churches of opulence and splendor. This hypocrisy endures in our secular world, he says, not least in his own France, where it is de rigueur even among the rich to feign indifference to money.

It is better to speak plainly about money in the old American fashion, in Bruckner's view. A little more honesty would allow us to see through the myths of money's omnipotence but also the dangers of the aristocratic, ideological, and religious systems of thought that try to put money in its place. This does not mean we should emulate the mega-rich with their pathologies of consumption, competition, and narcissistic philanthropy.

Biens symboliques / Symbolic Goods

But we could do worse than defy three hundred years of derision from novelists and poets to embrace the unromantic bourgeois virtues of work, security, and moderate comfort. It is wise to have money, Bruckner tells us, and wise to think about it critically. Une oeuvre qui tient du conte cf. Prix Renaudot Has marriage for love failed? The invention of marriage for love inverted the old relationship between love and marriage. In the past, marriage was sacred, and love, if it existed at all, was a consequence of marriage; today, love is sacred and marriage is secondary.

But now marriage appears to be becoming increasingly superfluous. For the past forty years or so, the number of weddings has been declining, the number of divorces exploding and the number of unmarried individuals and couples growing, while single-parent families are becoming more numerous. Love has triumphed over marriage but now it is destroying it from inside. So has the ideal of marriage for love failed, and has love finally been liberated from the shackles of marriage?

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In this brilliant and provocative book Pascal Bruckner argues that the old tension between love and marriage has not been resolved in favour of love, it has simply been displaced onto other levels. Even if it seems more straightforward, the contemporary landscape of love is far from euphoric: as in the past, infidelity, loss and betrayal are central to the plots of modern love, and the disenchantment is all the greater because marriages are voluntary and not imposed. Constant, Benjamin Overview. Publication Timeline. Most widely held works about Benjamin Constant.

Most widely held works by Benjamin Constant. Adolphe by Benjamin Constant Book editions published between and in 25 languages and held by 3, WorldCat member libraries worldwide "Enjoying all the advantages of noble birth and intellectual ability, but haunted by a sense of the meaninglessness of life, Adolphe seeks distraction in the pursuit of the beautiful, but older and more vulnerable Ellenore.

Unaware of the danger 'of appropriating the language of love, and of fostering in yourself or others emotions of the heart that are transitory', Adolphe unexpectedly falls in love, only to chafe under the burden of an illicit relationship that blocks his public career.

David Rieff : Ce qui me frappe en France, c'est la sacralisation de la mémoire"

Unable to commit himself fully to Ellenore, and yet unwilling to face the pain he would cause by leaving her, Adolphe finds himself caught up in a situation that cannot be remedied, and is resolved only with disastrous results. Political writings by Benjamin Constant Book 28 editions published between and in English and Undetermined and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide A translation of the major political work of Benjamin Constant with a detailed introduction and bibliographical information.

As already noted, the book contains a great deal of sanguine criticism of popular health practices and quackery. But in many other cases Orfila's criticism was aimed at physicians, surgeons, and pharmacists who used drugs which he regarded as useless or even dangerous. But the most controversial part of Orfila's book was the section on antidotes. Swift administration of the right antidote was crucial to the survival of the victim.


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Because most antidotes were only really effective if administered very soon, they usually had to be applied by the victims themselves or by their relatives or friends, that is, by lay people who needed precise instructions concerning the quantities required, the procedure, and the effects. But there was no general agreement among the French medical community on the antidotes that should be used for each poison, their effectiveness, and the correct doses.

Therefore, when proposing his own antidotes, Orfila was obliged to challenge many of the suggestions put forward by his medical colleagues:. Before speaking of the treatment of poisoned persons, we shall examine, under the title of Counter-poisons , those substances which have been regarded as such by several physicians: we shall reject such as are useless or dangerous, and recommend only those the efficacy of which has been demonstrated by reiterated experiments.

Indeed, animal experiments and their use in medicine was a controversial issue in Orfila's time. Quoting other publications, Bertrand challenged the reliability of Orfila's experiments with recourse to two arguments that were often used against animal experimentation: the differences between animal and human physiology and the effects of the ligature of the oesophagus, the method used by Orfila to prevent the animal from vomiting the poison.

The major attack on Orfila's method came from Antoine Portal, an influential representative of the Paris clinical school, who worked in clinical medicine, pathological anatomy and physical diagnosis and, as mentioned above, had also published a popular book on first aid in asphyxias and accidental poisoning.

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After discussing the clinical symptoms and anatomical damage produced by poisons, Portal suggested a general procedure for all the poisons: emetics and purgative enema should be applied if the poison had been swallowed recently, as the main purpose was to expel it. Portal preferred this treatment to the allegedly specific antidotes because the efficacy of the latter substances had been proved only in animal experiments or in chemical test-tubes, not in humans—and that, as a result, they might be useless or even potentially harmful. Portal doubted that data based on chemical analysis and animal experimentation were reliable enough to justify the introduction of new antidotes for poisons and the replacement of old, well-tested general treatments.

In the second edition of Secours , Orfila acknowledged that some of the antidotes in question had been introduced only very recently, and that he himself had been responsible for their introduction.


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  7. Can one seriously say that the results of experiments with antidotes are worthless because they have been tested on animals alone? We do not think so; indeed, place lead acetate in a glass, a pot, the stomach of a dog or a man; then, pour over it soda sulphate the antidote to lead salt and, as soon as it comes into contact , the poison will be decomposed, the antidote will have produced all the expected effects; substitute the lead acetate with salts of mercury, or salts of copper, and the soda sulphate with albumin, and a similar effect will be found.

    Would we not be surprised, then, to hear that the decomposition of the poison by the antidote takes place in the stomach of a dog and not in the stomach of a man? The controversies on animal experimentation were related to the new image of expert toxicologists a select medical elite of specialists which Orfila was gradually moulding with his publications and research.

    His new experimental protocols required a high degree of competence that was usually beyond the scope of local physicians and pharmacists who had been traditionally requested to act as expert witnesses in poisoning trials. In contrast, Parisian experts had laboratory facilities for animal experimentation and cadavers for autopsies, and so the new toxicological methods clearly favoured the role of the Parisian medical elite over local physicians and pharmacists in courtrooms.

    In this context it is no surprise that controversies on the role of experiments in toxicology reached the courtrooms. In fact, since his very first publications on toxicology, Orfila had always pointed out the differences between the conditions of the laboratory and those of real life. Apart from the first edition, between and several translations of Orfila's book were published in other European countries see the table at the end of this paper.

    These consisted of two English editions including two American reprints , three German translations one of them published in Hungary , 78 four Italian, one Danish and one Spanish.

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    In , a new version of R H Black's English translation became available. The swift publication of the translations some of which came out in the same year as the first edition can hardly be attributed to the fame of Orfila. Many other authors, like those mentioned in the first section, published similar books but did not reach such a large international audience in such a brief period of time. There are several clues that suggest that Orfila actively contributed to this process. We know that he sent his book to several English booksellers and editors just a few days after the publication of the French edition.

    Like Price, many other first translators may have been in contact in some way with Orfila. The Italian translator, Carlo Porta, was a member of the Paris Medical Society who had recently published a paper on poisoning with opium in the Society's journal. He had been on a study trip to Italy and France in and , and it may be that he was in contact with Orfila or even attended some of his lectures. Two of the German translators—J A Roschet and Peter Gottlieb Brosse, an apothecary—did not publish any major scientific work, while the other two translators had teaching positions in chemistry or medicine.

    In , Schuster was appointed professor of natural history, chemistry and botany at the University of Pest, where he also taught legal medicine and pharmacology. He published several papers and books on drugs and chemicals opium, iodine, iron, and so on and translated other medical books apart from Orfila's Secours.

    John had also studied with Klaproth and became professor of chemistry and pharmacy at Berlin, publishing a great many papers on experimental chemistry mostly on plant and animal chemistry , several chemistry textbooks and a celebrated volume of tables on plant analyses, which had been translated into French and which Orfila had used. The ways in which the translators approached their task differed widely. Other translators, however, added new chapters, changed sections, revised the terminology, offered additional bibliographic orientation, included new images or added notes that expanded on or criticized the original text.

    Some additions were borrowed from similar books on first aid and toxicology.

    kophissingbogoo.cf The founders were concerned at the number of people mistaken for dead and, in some cases, buried alive, and they were also interested in methods of reviving the drowned and suffocated; these important topics were both discussed by Orfila in his book. Stevenson quoted the RHS report but his most important additions were data from chemistry textbooks and materia medica which he had probably used during his studies at Harvard—for instance, John Gorham's chemistry textbook and Jacob Bigelow's books on materia medica.

    In the French school of medicine, numerous prescriptions yet exist, of very antique origin, when the greater the multitude of ingredients, the more sovereign was the effect expected to be produced; but many of those ingredients being uncommon in England, and, indeed, our late advance in chymical knowledge having proved, that in these heterogeneous compositions, some of the ingredients entirely neutralise others, the Translator has occasionally substituted such more simple medicines as can be generally procured, and as are approved by the London College of Physicians.

    This quotation shows the efforts translators made to adapt the book to their local audiences. Of course, the chemical and botanical terminology—particularly the local names of plants—posed enormous problems. Some translators attempted to transform Orfila's terms into local expressions, but sometimes many possible translations were available and ambiguities were common.

    In fact, the English translators gave different versions for the same botanical term. In other cases, the overriding issue was the intended audience or the professional background of the translator. As noted above, many communities surgeons, apothecaries, lay people were not up to date with recent developments in chemical terminology, and may not have been particularly interested in the area.

    Black, a surgeon, did not provide the new names of chemical substances in his translation.