Like the ERA tool, it enables informed decision making on the development of a city, but also in preparing for disasters whether natural or man-made , and in monitoring and evaluation of the action taken. Strategic Environmental Assessment. Strategic Environmental Assessment is a systematic process for evaluating the environmental consequences of policies, plans, programmes or proposals, to ensure that they are addressed early in the decision making process and on par with economic and social considerations. Applied to disaster management, it also helps in understanding the environmental consequences of pre- and post-disaster activities.
Undertaking SEAs can also contribute to sustainable development goals, promote accountability and credibility among the general public and specific stakeholders, and lead to broader policy coherence. For simplicity, SEA can be broken down into different activities conducted alongside the development of disaster mitigation plans or programmes, and consideration of alternative options.
Stage A: Local authorities needs to consider the availability of background information and propose objectives and indicators for the SEA. This material is required at the outset when issues and options are being developed Stage B: Local authorities decide the likely scope of the environmental report, and what level of detail to be examined. Other stakeholders are consulted in this process. At this stage, reasonable alternatives to the plan are identified Stage C: Local authorities assess the likely effects on the environment of the evolving plan, and its alternatives.
Where there are significant adverse effects as a result of the plan, information needs to be provided on how these will be reduced, prevented or offset Stage D: The report is a key output to the SEA and should be available for consultation.
Environmental & Social Risk Analysis (ESRA)
After consultation responses have been received, a statement is made regarding how the responses were taken into account in the evolving plan Stage E: Monitoring of the significant environmental effects of implementing the plan. This allows any unforeseen adverse effects of the plan to be recognised and dealt with. Monitoring also enables future predictions to be made more accurately and provides baseline information for future plans.
Environmental Management Systems. An Environmental Management Systems EMS is a systematic way to ensure environmental issues are managed consistently and systematically. Effectively applied, an EMS can help integrate environmental considerations within a larger disaster management plan. It sets out environmental policies, objectives and targets for the implementing organization, with pre-determined indicators that provide measurable goals, and a means of determining if the performance level has been reached.
The global marine biosecurity research and management community have recognized that directing resources to manage incursions is most effective if resources are deployed according to risk.
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However, this can only be effectively achieved if the assessment of the risk is accurate. These two studies provide examples of how this can be achieved. Risk screening is commonly applied as the first step in quantitative risk assessments. Cotter et al. This involved extensive stakeholder workshop tasks to both elicit information, and ensure engagement with key stakeholders. The ecological risk screening approach was effective in eliciting and integrating disparate information that can then be used to prioritize management resources.
Knights et al. This approach can be used to investigate the relative magnitude of different impact pathways and thereby identify ecosystem components most at-risk. Finally, Astles highlights the importance of addressing multiple scales and risk pathways in both the ecological system and the human system, and the need for risk communication throughout both the assessment and management processes. This study provides an approach for transitioning from effective risk assessment to risk management, demonstrated through a case study of an urban estuary. All of these case studies demonstrate the considerable advantages and utility that risk-based approaches offer.
It follows, therefore, that there is considerable potential and scope for risk-based approaches to be applied to the management of marine fisheries, aquaculture, spatial planning, and other activities that occur in coastal and marine systems, in coordination with the direct management of living resources and habitats.
We thank Wesley Flannery for suggestions on an earlier draft of the manuscript.
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Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. An overview of approaches to risk assessment. An article theme set: Risk assessment and risk management in the marine sciences.
Risk assessment and risk management: a primer for marine scientists Mark T. Oxford Academic.
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Google Scholar. Howard I. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Risk assessment is the management approach or framework of choice in many disciplines, including health care and research, engineering design, and particularly the insurance sector which relies on the best available forward projections of natural hazards and accidents. Table 1. Open in new tab. Risk is most often defined as the product of the likelihood or probability of an event occurring, and the consequences of the event if it were to occur. Alternative definitions have been proposed; for example, the influential risk communicator Peter Sandman www.
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Figure 1. Open in new tab Download slide. Linking risk factors to risk treatment in ecological risk assessment of marine biodiversity. Search ADS. A hub and spoke network model to analyse the secondary dispersal of introduced marine species in Indonesia. Assessing marine biosecurity risks when data is limited: bioregion pathway and species-based exposure analyses. Google Preview. A development of ecological risk screening with an application to fisheries off SW England. Guidance on expert knowledge elicitation in food and feed safety risk assessment. Review and refinement of an existing qualitative risk assessment method for application within an ecosystem-based management framework.
Understanding householder responses to natural hazards: flooding and sea-level rise comparisons.
An exposure-effect approach for evaluating ecosystem-wide risks from human activities. Implementing the precautionary principle in fisheries management through marine reserves. A bibliometric study of the trend in articles related to risk assessment published in Science Citation Index. The global financial crisis and the evolution of markets, institutions and regulation. Standards Australia. Quantitative environmental risk assessments in the context of marine spatial management: current approaches and some perspectives.
Risk assessment of the environmental impact of Norwegian Atlantic salmon farming. Assessing the influence of environmental impact assessments on science and policy: an analysis of the Three Gorges Project.
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The role of individual personality type in subjective risk elicitation outcomes. Value of information analysis in environmental health risk management decisions: past, present, and future. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals. Issue Section:.
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Download all figures. View Metrics. Email alerts New issue alert. Community, Environment and Disaster Risk Management deals with a wide range of issues relating to global environmental hazards, natural and man-made disasters, and approaches to disaster risk reduction. As people and communities are the first and the most important responders to disasters and environment-related problems, this series aims to analyse critical field-based mechanisms which link community, policy and governance systems.
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The series provides a unique forum for interaction between academics and field practitioners. Community, Environment and Disaster Risk Management is essential reading for all academics, researchers and practitioners who are involved in the areas of environment and disaster risk reduction.